CBD for Neurologic Conditions in Children

Current evidence for treatment of pediatric neurologic conditions with FDA- and non-FDA-approved cannabidiol (CBD), a chemical constituent of the cannabis plant
In 2018, the FDA approved Epidiolex, a pharmaceutical grade CBD product for 2 rare types of pediatric epilepsy. In 2020, the FDA further approved Epidiolex for seizures associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. Medical home clinicians need to understand the safety and side effects of Epidiolex as well as how to address families’ questions and popular beliefs about non-FDA-approved CBD and other marijuana-derived products.
Use of CBD products in children with neurologic conditions other than in specific epilepsy syndromes is not supported by quality evidence. Even when used in epilepsy syndromes, the evidence behind CBD products remains modest. More high-quality, randomized control trials are needed to investigate CBD for treatment of refractory epilepsy and understand the long-term consequences of use of CBD and other cannabis preparations. Since the FDA approval and re-scheduling of Epidiolex, increasing studies have become available regarding usage, dosage, and research within the field is expected to rapidly flourish.

Other Names

“Medical marijuana” (sometimes spelled marihuana) is not a single drug but a spectrum of preparations based on the concentrations of cannabinoids. A number of terms describe cannabis preparations, which can be confusing to physicians and families:
  • Cannabidiol
  • Cannabinoids
  • CBD oil
  • Hemp extract
  • Hemp oil
Low-THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) cannabis plants are often referred to as “hemp,” while those containing high-THC concentrations are generally called “marijuana.” Under the 2014 Farm Bill, which allows study of industrial hemp products containing <0.3% THC, pharmaceutical companies have been developing purified and quality-controlled preparations of cannabinoids for medical research and use. Any discussion about medical marijuana must be met with an understanding of the variability (and lack of enforced regulation) that this term entails.
As of February 3, 2022, 37 states, three territories and the District of Columbia allow the medical use of cannabis products.

Key Points

Only 1 form of CBD approved by the FDA
Epidiolex, a pharmaceutical-grade CBD medication, was approved in 2018 for treatment of refractory epilepsy in children with Dravet syndrome or Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome. In 2020, the use of the medication was further approved for treatment of seizures associated with tuberous sclerosis complex greater than one year of age. [Drug: 2018] CBD medication in FDA-approved formulations was later changed from Schedule I to Schedule V, though Epidiolex is the only one available currently.
Non-regulated CBD products may have harmful or unknown ingredients
Families who give children CBD products other than Epidiolex should be aware that non-pharmaceutical grade products vary in the amount of CBD they contain if any, and they may not contain the amount of CBD that the label states. They may also contain up to 80 other cannabinoids including THC, unlisted ingredients, and contaminants. [Bonn-Miller: 2017]
Discontinuation of anti-epileptic medications can cause death
Increased seizures, status epilepticus, and death have occurred in children taking CBD products after parents have changed or stopped other medications against medical advice or without guidance of a physician. Anti-epileptic medications should not be stopped or titrated after starting Epidiolex or unregulated CBD products unless under the direction of the prescribing physician.
Avoid giving dosing advice to families who use CBD products not approved by the FDA
There is no consensus on recommended dosing for unregulated CBD products in children. In reported studies and case reports, dosing has widely varied, often even within studies, ranging from 1-50 mg/kg/day. [Wong: 2017] Counseling about use of these products is similar to counseling about other unregulated complementary and alternative treatments.

Evidence for Therapeutic Value of CBD

Evidence for cannabinoids and childhood epilepsy
Literature about cannabinoids and childhood epilepsy has shown that pure CBD has more evidence for efficacy than other preparations, and its use significantly improved seizure control for patients in most of the few studies conducted. [Wong: 2017] [Devinsky: 2014] [Thiele: 2018]
Only a few fully randomized, controlled trials of purified CBD products to treat refractory epilepsy in children have been published:
These studies contributed to the FDA’s decision to approve Epidiolex (pharmaceutical grade pure CBD) as an evidence-based treatment for treatment-resistant epilepsy due to Dravet syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome, and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). Ongoing clinical trials can be found at ClinicalTrials.gov.
Remaining studies have lacked appropriate controls and large sample sizes. They are subject to significant bias, especially since many rely on parental reports of improved seizure control and quality of life. For example, parents who relocate to Colorado to obtain legal cannabis products for their child report a greater perceived benefit of oral cannabis extracts compared to parents already living in the state. [Treat: 2017] Some studies have also demonstrated high termination of CBD use during studies; up to 71% suggest minimal efficacy, high side-effect profile, or other complicating factors including cost, access, and administration. [Treat: 2017] The use of “artisanal” non-purified and non-pharmaceutical grade preparations of CBD or other marijuana products has even more mixed evidence regarding the treatment of epilepsy. The overwhelming consensus in the literature is that more high-quality, randomized control trials are needed to investigate CBD products for treatment of refractory epilepsy, ideally with regulated, pharmaceutical grade products.
Cannabinoids and other neurologic disorders
It has been suggested that cannabis derivatives could be of potential therapeutic use for other neurologic conditions including spasticity, movement disorders, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain syndromes, autism, and psychiatric disorders. The evidence for treatment of these disorders with cannabis products is even more sparse than the evidence for the treatment of epilepsy with cannabis products. There is only low-quality evidence (retrospective reviews and case reports) supportive of efficacy for treatment of spasticity in children. [Koppel: 2014] [Wong: 2017] ] Efficacy of cannabis products in the treatment of complex motor disorders has also been studied in randomized controlled clinical trials but was not found to demonstrate significant benefit. [Libzon: 2018] Although new research is still emerging, current literature does not support the use of cannabis products in the treatment of other neurologic conditions in children. Given the paucity of literature on the topic, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) opposes the use of medical cannabis outside of FDA-approved pharmaceutical products. [Ammerman: 2015] They recommend higher-quality research in the field.


Epidiolex, which consists of purified cannabidiol, was approved by the FDA in 2018 for treatment of refractory seizures in children ≥2 years old with Dravet syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, or tuberous sclerosis complex. It is the first cannabis-derived medication to gain approval from the FDA. (See FDA Approval for Epidiolex (FDA) for the press release.)


When first approved by the FDA in 2018 for specific forms of refractory epilepsy, Epidiolex was a schedule V controlled substance, meaning it was classified as a drug that can be misused or cause dependence, and the federal government regulated its use. As of April 2020, Epidiolex is no longer a controlled substance. Now that the FDA has removed Epidiolex from its list of controlled substances, it’s easier for doctors to prescribe the medication. The change will also help people more easily fill and transfer their prescriptions for Epidiolex. It is unknown whether off-label use of Epidiolex to treat other types of refractory epilepsy or neurologic conditions will be covered by insurance or be considered on a case-by-case basis.


Dosing guidelines are available on the manufacturer's website at Epidiolex: Recommended Dosage (Greenwich Biosciences). Dosing recommendations differ depending on the individual’s underlying diagnosis and degree of hepatic impairment, with higher doses for efficacy suggested for treatment of seizures in children with tuberous sclerosis complex than for Dravet or Lennox-Gastaut syndromes. Guidelines for use in Dravet syndrome are based on a 2020 randomized controlled clinical trial that reported similar efficacy between 20mg/kg/d dosing and 10mg/kg/d dosing, with the latter demonstrating a better safety and tolerability profile. [Miller: 2020] There is limited data reflecting dosing comparisons in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and tuberous sclerosis complex literature. Primary care clinicians are strongly advised to consult with a pediatric neurologist, particularly an epileptologist, rather than starting this medication independently.

Safety and Side Effects

Although previous research suggested that CBD is relatively safe with no significant side effects or adverse events associated with use [Devinsky: 2014], more recent pharmaceutical research has demonstrated side effects and safety considerations that may interfere with some patients’ tolerance or use of this medication.
The most common side effects of Epidiolex in clinical trials have been elevated liver enzymes, decreased appetite, diarrhea, sleepiness, fatigue, malaise, asthenia, insomnia or poor sleep quality, infections, and rashes. In trials of Epidiolex in children, the most reported side effects, including somnolence, diarrhea, fatigue, and appetite suppression [Filloux: 2015], were not significant enough to stop administration for most families. As is true for essentially all drugs that treat epilepsy, there is increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior.
Monitoring of transaminase and bilirubin levels should be obtained prior to starting treatment, at 1, 3, and 6 months after initiation of treatment, and periodically after that, particularly if the patient also takes valproate, clobazam, or other medications that affect the liver. In one dose-dependent study, all cases of elevated transaminases occurred in participants taking concomitant valproate sodium. Transaminitis also occurred significantly more frequently in the higher dose subset of participants. [Miller: 2020] Other medications metabolized through the cytochrome P450 system may have altered concentrations when taken with CBD. [Filloux: 2015] This is illustrated by a study showing that families of children taking clobazam concurrently with CBD products all reported sedation as the main side effect. [Porcari: 2018]
Concerns have also been raised regarding dietary habits that may impact the metabolism of Epidiolex, specifically the ketogenic diet commonly utilized by patients with refractory epilepsy. Eating meals high in fat can increase the amount of Epidiolex the body absorbs, which can increase the level of Epidiolex in the patient’s system. In clinical studies, Epidiolex levels were increased up to five times when the drug was taken with a high-fat meal, leading to adverse drug reactions including somnolence and GI upset. [Schaiquevich: 2020]
The potential changes in metabolism of other anti-epileptic medications are concerning and require close monitoring by a clinician aware of potential interactions. Counsel families to avoid abrupt discontinuation because of the risk of increased seizure frequency and status epilepticus. Epidiolex: Important Considerations (Greenwich Biosciences) lists further efficacy and safety information from the drug manufacturer's website.

Other Cannabis-Derived Pharmaceutical Medications

Sativex, which contains a 50:50 ratio of THC:CBD, was developed in the early 2000s for treatment of spasms related to multiple sclerosis in adult patients. It has also been used as adjunctive analgesia in advanced-stage cancer. The drug is marketed in many countries, but is not available in the United States. [Wong: 2017]
Synthetic cannabinoids, including dronabinol (Marinol, Syndros), are legally prescribed in the US. Dronabinol is a synthetic delta-9-THC that has received FDA approval for treatment of anorexia in AIDS patients and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in both adults and children. It is a schedule III drug.
Nabilone (Casamet) has a similar structure to THC and is also used for treatment of refractory nausea and vomiting in children and adults receiving chemotherapy. [Wong: 2017] Physicians are able to prescribe this medication because it is a Schedule II drug.

Unregulated CBD and “Medical Marijuana” Products


The 1970 US Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act categorized cannabis as a Schedule I drug, which makes possession and use of the drug and its derivatives illegal. [Mead: 2017] Schedule I drugs are defined as those with high abuse potential and no accepted medical use per the federal government. Epidiolex was previously rescheduled to Schedule V. As of April 2020, Epidiolex is no longer a controlled substance. CBD in forms other than FDA-approved drug Epidiolex remains a schedule 1 drug at the federal level and remain illegal to prescribe, despite legality increasing at the state level. Only Epidiolex has been rescheduled to Schedule V; other forms of CBD are still illegal to prescribe. Legislation has been introduced to the US Congress to change marijuana from a Schedule I to a Schedule II drug; however, under federal law, it remains illegal for physicians to prescribe marijuana to their patients.
Some states have legalized marijuana for medical and/or personal use. A list of current state laws can be found here: Currently, marijuana and its derivatives (other than Epidiolex) remain illegal at the federal level, despite legalization in certain states.

Research Potential

FDA approval of cannabis in various conditions is often limited by a lack of controlled research studies specific to that condition or population. For many years, bipartisan legislature has struggled to see eye to eye on the best direction of cannabis reform to further promote quality research efforts within the medical community. In a landmark victory on December 2, 2022, President Biden signed into law the “Medical Marijuana and Cannabidiol Research Expansion Act, H.R. 8454.” This bipartisan legislation marks the first cannabis reform bill to pass both the House and Senate, paving the way for future research and applications of medical cannabis.
It should be noted that the new law does not change marijuana’s status as a schedule 1 substance. This legislation primarily intends to:
  1. Further characterize the medical risks and benefits of cannabis and its synthetic equivalents.
  2. Expand sources of medical-grade cannabis.
  3. Encourage commercial development of marijuana and CBD derivatives approved by the FDA.
  4. Ensure that physicians are prepared to appropriately discuss the risks and benefits of marijuana and CBD with patients and their families.
  5. Clarify and streamline the rolls of governing bodies, s including the FDA, NIDA, and DEA, in cannabis research.
By increasing the supply of cannabis available for research potential and streamlining the approval process for research in medical cannabis, future studies are predicted to drastically expand the uses and applications of cannabis in pediatric neurologic conditions in the coming years.


Increase in seizures
Seizures have been noted in children with accidental cannabis overdoses, which brings up the concerning possibility that cannabis products could worsen symptoms in some children with epilepsy. [Wong: 2017] Studies of “hemp oil” preparations obtained in Colorado have noted significant adverse effects of seizure increase, status epilepticus, and even death. [Filloux: 2015] If families perceive CBD products to be effective, they might decrease or stop other anti-epileptics without consulting a physician, which could potentially be life-threatening.
Emotional and cognitive function
With the evidence behind medicinal cannabis products lacking, it is helpful to evaluate safety considerations in states that have legalized marijuana for recreational use. In Colorado, legalization has led to a significant increase in hospital admissions and emergency room visits for acute THC intoxication. [Monte: 2015] Recreational marijuana use in adolescents has been associated with lower than expected IQs, decreased cognitive function, depression, suicidality, symptoms of psychosis, and poor school performance. [Rosenberg: 2015] Currently, THC is thought to be responsible for more significant and neurotoxic side effects than CBC; CBD may actually protect from some of these. Some research supports the “entourage effect,” which suggests that phytocannabinoids work synergistically with each other and purifying may inhibit the full effect. [Rosenberg: 2015] Because unregulated products may contain THC or other psychoactive cannabinoids or chemicals, it is difficult to predict the effect or safety for pediatric use.
Synaptic plasticity
Significant development of the brain and endocannabinoid system occurs during childhood and adolescence. Because of the known neuromodulatory effects of cannabinoids, use of cannabis products may negatively alter synaptic plasticity when used during critical times of development. This especially raises concerns for developmentally vulnerable populations, such as children with epilepsy and other neurologic conditions. The long-term effects of cannabis products in children and adolescents are unknown.
Inability to monitor for safety
Evaluation and safety monitoring of cannabis use are difficult because the content of the formulations that parents give their children is often unknown. For example, some preparations may have much higher amounts of THC and/or pesticides than pharmaceutical-grade medications. Concentrations of CBD may vary from batch to batch. One recent study found that less than 1/3 of various commercially available CBD products were labeled with correct concentrations. [Bonn-Miller: 2017] Reliable sources for acquisition of non-pharmaceutical grade CBD products are difficult to identify.
Access during hospitalization
Even if a CBD product appears to be an effective adjunct treatment for a child’s seizures at home, some hospital and institutional policies prohibit its use to avoid exposing their staff and credentialing to undue risk. [Filloux: 2015] In turn, this puts children currently using CBD products at risk of seizures worsening while hospitalized. As long as marijuana is a Schedule I substance, families and physicians will face complex decisions about the ethical and legal issues surrounding the use of non-FDA approved CBD products in children with refractory epilepsy.

Discussing CBD with Families

As far back as 2900 BC, cannabis has been used to treat seizures and other neurologic conditions. In recent years, however, popularized reports of dramatic effects and anecdotal evidence of efficacy have caught the attention of media outlets, pharmaceutical companies, entrepreneurs, patients, physicians, and policymakers alike. In particular, there has been much media coverage of children with Dravet syndrome, a devastating epilepsy syndrome, who have had remarkable decreases in seizure frequency and improvements in cognitive function after taking CBD. [Maa: 2014]
When asked about CBD and its efficacy, the following points should be discussed with families:
  • Cannabis contains many chemicals, including CBD and THC. CBD is the substance felt to be helpful in epilepsy. THC is thought of as psychoactive and responsible for the “high” people experience with marijuana.
  • Preparations of CBD or “hemp” vary widely in the amounts of THC and CBD that they contain.
  • Even when products have CBD and THC concentrations on the label, they are often inaccurate.
  • There is no consensus on dosing of CBD for the treatment of epilepsy.
  • Depending on how much THC or CBD a child is actually receiving, common side effects can include diarrhea, somnolence, irritability, and changes in appetite.
  • CBD may affect the concentrations of other anti-epileptic medications in their child’s body. This could lead to possible toxicities and over-sedation.
  • Increased seizures, status epilepticus, and death have occurred in children taking CBD after families have chosen to stop their child’s other epilepsy medications without the guidance of a doctor. It is essential that families discuss any changes to anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) with the prescribing physician.
Aside from Epidiolex, CBD is a Schedule I drug and it is illegal to prescribe. Because of this, physicians should avoid making specific recommendations about use, dosing, and places to purchase non-pharmaceutical grade products.

Neurophysiology of Cannabinoids

The cannabis plant contains at least 60 different phytocannabinoids with variable proportions of these biochemicals based on the strain of plant. [Koppel: 2014] These cannabinoids are structurally related yet distinct and easily cross the blood-brain barrier due to their lipophilic nature. Within the central nervous system, they function through the complex endocannabinoid system, which is composed of chemicals called endocannabinoids and their receptors. Activation of this system, either through endogenous (endocannabionoids) or non-endogenous (cannabis-derived chemicals) results in multifactorial neuro-modulatory effects with modulation of region-specific, long-term synaptic potentiation and depression. [Rosenberg: 2015]
The 2 main cannabinoid receptors are CB1, which is widely distributed and primarily inhibits neurotransmitter release, and CB2, which is less prevalent and not as well understood. [Fine: 2013] Some believe that phyto- and endo- cannabinoids also work on additional target sites and receptors, which adds to the complexity of a process. Furthermore, the system is felt to be dynamic, with chronic hyperexcitability leading to changes in the pathway. [Rosenberg: 2015] Cannabinoids work through synaptic depolarization and hyperpolarization, which activate receptors that then modulate the release of other neurotransmitters. [Fine: 2013] The endocannabinoid system, and its ability to function as feedback inhibition, thus presents an inherent potential target for the management of neurologic disease.
While the complex nature of the system makes cannabis an attractive potential therapy for multiple ailments, it also creates difficulties in targeting the correct receptors and desired effects. This is further complicated by the variability of strains, preparations, and ratios of phytocannabinoids. The most studied phytocannabinoids are tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).
THC is a partial agonist of cannabinoid receptors. It is felt to be responsible for the majority of cognitive and psychotropic effects of cannabis. Functioning mainly through CB1 and CB2, it has been shown to be involved in the regulation of neuronal excitability and the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines. [Rosenberg: 2015]
CBD, on the other hand, seems to function through non-endocannabinoid signaling, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties.[Devinsky: 2014] The effect of a cannabis preparation, therefore, depends on the ratio of THC to CBD, and CBD in and of itself is thought to modulate the psychoactive effects of THC. [Koppel: 2014]


Information & Support

For Professionals

Epilepsy, Medical Marijuana and CBD: Myths and Facts (AES)
From the American Epilepsy Society

FDA and Marijuana: Questions and Answers (FDA)
Answers to frequently asked questions about the FDA stance on cannabis-derived therapeutics and their role in ongoing research; US Food and Drug Administration.

State Medical Marijuana Laws (NCSL)
State and federal laws about medical marijuana; National Conference of State Legislatures.

Practice Guidelines

Ryan SA, Ammerman SD.
Counseling Parents and Teens About Marijuana Use in the Era of Legalization of Marijuana.
Pediatrics. 2017;139(3). PubMed abstract / Full Text
This clinical report offers guidance to the practicing pediatrician based on existing evidence and expert opinion/consensus of the American Academy of Pediatrics regarding anticipatory guidance and counseling to teenagers and their parents about marijuana and its use.

Patient Education

CBD Use in Children—Miracle, Myth, or Mystery?
A JAMA Pediatrics Patient Page about cannabinoids or cannabis products for children with various health conditions.

Helpful Articles

PubMed search for therapeutic cannabidiol use in children, last 3 years.

Gaston TE, Bebin EM, Cutter GR, Liu Y, Szaflarski JP.
Interactions between cannabidiol and commonly used antiepileptic drugs.
Epilepsia. 2017;58(9):1586-1592. PubMed abstract

Wong SS, Wilens TE.
Medical Cannabinoids in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review.
Pediatrics. 2017;140(5). PubMed abstract
Systematic review to identify the evidence base of cannabinoids as a medical treatment in children and adolescents.

Koppel BS, Brust JC, Fife T, Bronstein J, Youssof S, Gronseth G, Gloss D.
Systematic review: efficacy and safety of medical marijuana in selected neurologic disorders: report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.
Neurology. 2014;82(17):1556-63. PubMed abstract / Full Text
A systematic review of medical marijuana (1948-November 2013) to address treatment of symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), epilepsy, and movement disorders.

Gloss D, Vickrey B.
Cannabinoids for epilepsy.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014(3):CD009270. PubMed abstract
Cochrane systematic review to assess the efficacy and safety of cannabinoids when used as monotherapy or add-on treatment for people with epilepsy

Ammerman S, Ryan S, Adelman WP.
The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research, and legal update.
Pediatrics. 2015;135(3):e769-85. PubMed abstract
AAP Technical Report on the epidemiology of marijuana use, definitions and biology of marijuana compounds, side effects, and effects of use on adolescent brain development. Legal and safety issues concerning medical marijuana specifically are also addressed, including effects on youth of criminal penalties for marijuana use and possession.

Authors & Reviewers

Initial publication: September 2018; last update/revision: February 2023
Current Authors and Reviewers:
Author: Reilly F Philliben, DO
Senior Author: Carey A. Wilson, MD
Authoring history
2020: update: Lynne M. Kerr, MD, PhDR
2019: update: Francis M. Filloux, MDR
2018: first version: Jennifer Goldman, MD, MRP, FAAPA; Melissa Wright, MDA; Carey A. Wilson, MDCA; Francis M. Filloux, MDSA
AAuthor; CAContributing Author; SASenior Author; RReviewer

Page Bibliography

Ammerman S, Ryan S, Adelman WP.
The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research, and legal update.
Pediatrics. 2015;135(3):e769-85. PubMed abstract
AAP Technical Report on the epidemiology of marijuana use, definitions and biology of marijuana compounds, side effects, and effects of use on adolescent brain development. Legal and safety issues concerning medical marijuana specifically are also addressed, including effects on youth of criminal penalties for marijuana use and possession.

Bonn-Miller MO, Loflin MJE, Thomas BF, Marcu JP, Hyke T, Vandrey R.
Labeling Accuracy of Cannabidiol Extracts Sold Online.
JAMA. 2017;318(17):1708-1709. PubMed abstract / Full Text

Devinsky O, Cilio MR, Cross H, Fernandez-Ruiz J, French J, Hill C, Katz R, Di Marzo V, Jutras-Aswad D, Notcutt WG, Martinez-Orgado J, Robson PJ, Rohrback BG, Thiele E, Whalley B, Friedman D.
Cannabidiol: pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders.
Epilepsia. 2014;55(6):791-802. PubMed abstract / Full Text

Drug Enforcement Administration.
Epidiolex placed in schedule V of Controlled Substance Act.
US Department of Justice; (2018) https://www.dea.gov/press-releases/2018/09/27/fda-approved-drug-epidio.... September 27, 2018 Press Release. Accessed on 12/20/2018.

Filloux FM.
Cannabinoids for pediatric epilepsy? Up in smoke or real science?.
Transl Pediatr. 2015;4(4):271-82. PubMed abstract / Full Text

Fine PG, Rosenfeld MJ.
The endocannabinoid system, cannabinoids, and pain.
Rambam Maimonides Med J. 2013;4(4):e0022. PubMed abstract / Full Text

Koppel BS, Brust JC, Fife T, Bronstein J, Youssof S, Gronseth G, Gloss D.
Systematic review: efficacy and safety of medical marijuana in selected neurologic disorders: report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.
Neurology. 2014;82(17):1556-63. PubMed abstract / Full Text
A systematic review of medical marijuana (1948-November 2013) to address treatment of symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), epilepsy, and movement disorders.

Libzon S, Schleider LB, Saban N, Levit L, Tamari Y, Linder I, Lerman-Sagie T, Blumkin L.
Medical Cannabis for Pediatric Moderate to Severe Complex Motor Disorders.
J Child Neurol. 2018;33(9):565-571. PubMed abstract

Maa E, Figi P.
The case for medical marijuana in epilepsy.
Epilepsia. 2014;55(6):783-6. PubMed abstract

Mead A.
The legal status of cannabis (marijuana) and cannabidiol (CBD) under U.S. law.
Epilepsy Behav. 2017;70(Pt B):288-291. PubMed abstract

Miller I, Scheffer IE, Gunning B, Sanchez-Carpintero R, Gil-Nagel A, Perry MS, Saneto RP, Checketts D, Dunayevich E, Knappertz V.
Dose-Ranging Effect of Adjunctive Oral Cannabidiol vs Placebo on Convulsive Seizure Frequency in Dravet Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
JAMA Neurol. 2020;77(5):613-621. PubMed abstract / Full Text

Monte AA, Zane RD, Heard KJ.
The implications of marijuana legalization in Colorado.
JAMA. 2015;313(3):241-2. PubMed abstract / Full Text

Porcari GS, Fu C, Doll ED, Carter EG, Carson RP.
Efficacy of artisanal preparations of cannabidiol for the treatment of epilepsy: Practical experiences in a tertiary medical center.
Epilepsy Behav. 2018;80:240-246. PubMed abstract

Rosenberg EC, Tsien RW, Whalley BJ, Devinsky O.
Cannabinoids and Epilepsy.
Neurotherapeutics. 2015;12(4):747-68. PubMed abstract / Full Text
This provides a review of current understanding of the endocannabinoid system, the pro- and anticonvulsive effects of cannabinoids [e.g., Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (CBD)], and evidence from pre-clinical and clinical trials of cannabinoids in epilepsy.

Schaiquevich P, Riva N, Maldonado C, Vázquez M, Cáceres-Guido P.
Clinical pharmacology of cannabidiol in refractory epilepsy.
Farm Hosp. 2020;44(5):222-229. PubMed abstract

Thiele EA, Marsh ED, French JA, Mazurkiewicz-Beldzinska M, Benbadis SR, Joshi C, Lyons PD, Taylor A, Roberts C, Sommerville K.
Cannabidiol in patients with seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (GWPCARE4): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.
Lancet. 2018;391(10125):1085-1096. PubMed abstract

Treat L, Chapman KE, Colborn KL, Knupp KG.
Duration of use of oral cannabis extract in a cohort of pediatric epilepsy patients.
Epilepsia. 2017;58(1):123-127. PubMed abstract

Wong SS, Wilens TE.
Medical Cannabinoids in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review.
Pediatrics. 2017;140(5). PubMed abstract
Systematic review to identify the evidence base of cannabinoids as a medical treatment in children and adolescents.